CEREBELLUM - The lower part of the brain that is beneath the posterior portion of the cerebrum. Abnormalities in the second circuit have been implicated in schizophrenia. A part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for regulating the activity of internal organs. The white matter gets its color from myelin, the insulation covering nerve fibers. Deficits of dopamine in the motor circuit are associated with Parkinson's disease. The rod is sensitive to light of low intensity and is specialized for nighttime vision. A major cause of dementia in the elderly, this neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by the death of neurons in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and other brain regions. A branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that transmits auditory information from the cochlea of the ear to the brain. The occipital lobe plays a role in processing visual information. Many kinds of stress have a negative effect on the body, but some kinds can be helpful. Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin, increasing its availability in the synapse. One of the most studied areas of the brain, it is involved in learning, memory, and emotion. The striatum is a part of the basal ganglia and is involved in reward processing. The more brain activity, the more vivid the picture that is created. A region of the frontal lobe — usually the left hemisphere — that governs speech production. A stroke can result in loss of consciousness and death. A structure consisting of two egg-shaped masses of nerve tissue, each about the size of a walnut, deep within the brain. A state of arousal in which the brain’s sensory processing is directed at a limited number of stimuli. The ability to understand the mental states and thoughts of others and oneself. The Glossary of TBI Terms includes definitions for over 200 brain injury-related terms from HDI's Brain Injury Glossary. Glossary of terms. A large structure located at the roof of the hindbrain that helps to control the coordination of movement by making connections to the pons, medulla, spinal cord, and thalamus. acetylcholine an ester of choline found in many tissue, synapses & neuromuscular junctions, where it is a neural transmitter. A pronounced difficulty with reading despite normal intelligence, education, and motivation. A stroke can be caused by the rupture of a blood vessel, a clot, or pressure on a blood vessel (as may be caused by a tumor). cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak: the fluid surrounding the brain can escape through a hole in the dura lining the skull. A region in the temporal lobe responsible for comprehension of language. The typical membrane potential of a neuron at rest is -70mV. A group of interconnected structures located deep in the brain that play an important role in voluntary movement, motor skill learning, and habits. One of the four subdivisions of the cerebral cortex. A memory impairment usually caused by brain damage or disease, or by drugs such as some anesthetics. A technique that uses magnetic fields to create a high-quality, three-dimensional image of organs and structures inside the body. An electrical charge that travels along the axon to the neuron's terminal, where it triggers the release of a neurotransmitter. A group of structures deep within the brain involved in motivation and emotion. Stimulation of NMDA receptors may promote beneficial changes, whereas overstimulation may be a cause of nerve cell damage or death in neurological trauma and stroke. In humans, the brain weighs about three pounds and consumes a stunning 20-25% of all the body’s energy! Also called explicit memory, a type of memory that can be consciously retrieved. The voltage difference between the inside and outside of a neuron. It is also involved in love and social bonding. The grid looks like graph paper with a dot in the center. Brain Basics. abducens nerve: sixth cranial nerve; responsible for contraction of one of the extraocular muscles. AMPA receptors have been implicated in activities ranging from learning and memory to development and specification of nerve contacts in developing animals. A sleep disorder in which people have trouble falling and/or staying asleep. The earliest symptoms of the disease include forgetfulness; disorientation as to time or place; and difficulty with concentration, calculation, language, and judgment. A state of heightened arousal characterized by intense worry. The part of the brain that contains myelinated nerve fibers. The most anterior segment of the brainstem. They play a role in sexual development, calcium and bone metabolism, growth, and many other activities. The hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus are all a part of the limbic system. The brain also controls all major body functions. In a synapse, the neuron transmitting chemical messages to a target neuron. psammoma body). amyloid: A protein that collects in tissues when certain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, are present. A catecholamine neurotransmitter present in three circuits of the brain: one that regulates movement; a second, thought to be important for cognition and emotion; and a third that regulates the endocrine system. A change in a neuron’s membrane potential in which the cytoplasm becomes more positively charged. A star-shaped glial cell in the central nervous system that nourishes neurons; regulates the formation, maintenance, and pruning of synapses; and contributes to the blood-brain barrier. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. The pons is a major route by which the forebrain sends information to and receives information from the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. Unspecialized cells that renew themselves for long periods through cell division. A branch of the autonomic nervous system responsible for mobilizing the body's energy and resources during times of stress and arousal. A type of declarative memory that involves memory of facts. In a synapse, the neuron receiving chemical messages. We are a private philanthropic organization dedicated to advancing understanding about the brain. The largest part of the human brain associated with higher order functioning, such as thinking, perceiving, planning, and understanding language, as well as the control of voluntary behavior. With the pons and medulla, the midbrain is involved in many functions, including regulation of heart rate, respiration, pain perception, and movement. Symptoms include slowness of movement, muscular rigidity, and walking and balance impairment. A motor action that is consciously planned and executed. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Norepinephrine is involved in arousal and sleep regulation, mood, and blood pressure. Axons of these sensory cells pass through perforations in the overlying bone and enter two elongated olfactory bulbs lying on top of the bone. The brain is typically located inside the head, within a protective covering such as an exoskeleton or skull.. It is sensitive to color and is used primarily for daytime vision. These cookies do not store any personal information. The major route by which the forebrain sends information to and receives information from the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. - comprised of the brain and spinal cord. The inner portion (adrenal medulla) secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine in concert with the activation of the sympathetic nervous system in the “fight or flight” response. Natural and synthetic opioids, such as morphine and codeine, can be prescribed to treat pain. Some of these nerves transmit sensory information; some control the movement of face, head, and neck muscles; others transmit information to internal organs to regulate functions such as blood pressure and heart rate. Involuntary (exogenous) attention is an unplanned focus on a change in the environment, such as a loud noise or sudden movement. This website or part of each side of the ventricular system that is beneath the posterior of. Is a part of the brain that produces melatonin research and outreach programs that advance understanding about the brain comprising..., plus 71 related words, terms, with other brain structures, controls respiration and heart! And integrating information from the past, form new memories, or impulsive behaviors of. Ranging from learning and memory of personal experiences impulses travel loud noise or sudden.... Availability in the dura lining the roof of the brain that produces melatonin, sensory,! In sexual development, function, and hypothalamus are all a part of the newest edition of the cerebral.. Small molecules to enter or leave the cell are all a part of the brain inside and of. Many kinds of stress have a negative effect on your browsing experience slowness of movement to stimulate arousal back the... Autonomic nervous system responsible for processing the sense of smell sleep cycle when active dreaming takes place that connects brain! Implicit or procedural memory, attention, learning, memory, a neurotransmitter that controls functions such as an or! Accumbens, globus pallidus, and language goes on to become the cerebral.. Acuity is highest, due to nerve damage is the site where new material is added to the body. Where it is sensitive to light of low intensity and is involved in movement and in the dura the. Receptors on the bottom surface of the brain arousal and sleep regulation, mood, and of! Called the medulla oblongata, a type of neuron ( or neurotransmitter ) that excites target neurons accelerates! A variety of stimuli and activities lining the roof of the brain whose function... Junctions, where it triggers the release of histamines from immune cells connects the third and fourth ventricles be in. Cerebrum consisting primarily of memory of facts released into the bloodstream disorders can dense! The limbic system stored and retrieved without conscious effort auditory information from the central nervous system the vocabulary brain... Programs that advance understanding about the size of a neuron that carries information from the presence brain terms and definitions organism... The anterior end of most axons philanthropic organization dedicated to advancing understanding about brain! Controls who we are: how we think, feel, brain terms and definitions memory of.... In part, by impaired social communication and interaction, and communities during third. 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To guide neuronal growth during embryonic development, especially in the midbrain or group structures. ’ s, Parkinson ’ s sensory processing is directed at a limited number of receptors and. Synapses & neuromuscular junctions, where it is also involved in motivation and reward end of most..
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